Aboriginal Water:Aboriginal water is water that is owned or controlled by Aboriginal people. It includes all waters on Aboriginal land, including surface water, groundwater, and rainwater.
Absorption:Absorption is the process by which a substance takes in another substance. In the context of water treatment, absorption is used to remove dissolved substances from water.
Access Hatch:An access hatch is a small opening in a structure that allows access to the interior. In the context of water tanks, an access hatch allows for inspection and cleaning of the tank.
Accessible Storage Capacity:The accessible storage capacity of a water tank is the amount of water that can be stored in the tank without taking into account any dead storage. Dead storage is the amount of water that cannot be accessed due to sedimentation or other factors.
Acid Aerosol:An acid aerosol is a type of aerosol that contains acid. Acid aerosols are used in a variety of industries, including water treatment. Acid aerosols can be used to remove dissolved substances from water.
Acid Neutralizing Capacity:The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a substance is the ability of the substance to neutralize acids. ANC is important in water treatment because it can help to control pH levels.
Acidity: Acidity refers to the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale is used to measure acidity, with lower pH values indicating more acidic solutions and higher pH values indicating more alkaline solutions.
Activated Coal: A type of coal that has been treated with oxygen to increase its porosity and surface area. This makes it more effective at adsorbing impurities from water or air.
Activated Sludge: A type of sewage treatment in which bacteria are used to break down organic matter. The resulting sludge is then removed from the water.
Active Groups: A group of atoms in a molecule that can take part in chemical reactions.
Actual Capacity: The maximum amount of a substance that can be stored in a container, based on its physical dimensions.
Actual Usable Capacity: The amount of a substance that can actually be stored in a container, taking into account factors such as the presence of other substances, temperature, and pressure.
Adsorption: The process by which molecules are attracted to and adhere to the surface of another substance.
Advanced oxidation: A process used to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from water using one or more oxidizing agents. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can be used to treat a variety of water types, including surface water, groundwater, wastewater, and drinking water.
Advanced oxidation process: A type of water treatment that uses one or more oxidizing agents to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from water. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can be used to treat a variety of water types, including surface water, groundwater, wastewater, and drinking water.
Advanced wastewater treatment: A type of wastewater treatment that uses advanced technologies to remove a wide range of pollutants from sewage and industrial effluent. Advanced wastewater treatment can significantly reduce the pollution load on receiving waters and improve the quality of treated effluent.
Advanced water treatment: A type of water treatment that uses advanced technologies to remove a wide range of contaminants from water. Advanced water treatment can significantly improve the quality of treated water and reduce the pollution load on receiving waters.
Aerated lagoon: A type of wastewater treatment system that uses aeration to promote the growth of aerobic bacteria, which break down organic matter in the sewage. Aerated lagoons are often used in small communities where space is limited and other types of wastewater treatment are not feasible.
Aeration: The process of adding air to water to increase oxygen levels. Aeration is often used in wastewater treatment to promote the growth of aerobic bacteria, which break down organic matter in the sewage.
Aeration Tank:An aeration tank is a tank used to hold water and allow air to circulate through it. This circulation of air helps to keep the water oxygenated and can also help to remove impurities from the water.
Aerobic:Aerobic refers to the presence of oxygen in the environment. Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that require oxygen to survive and grow.
Aerosol:An aerosol is a suspension of fine particles in a gas. Aerosols can be created artificially, such as by spraying a liquid into the air, or they can occur naturally, such as when dust is blown into the air.
Affinity:Affinity refers to the attraction or affinity between two substances. For example, water has a strong affinity for other polar molecules, such as salt. This affinity is what allows water to dissolve salt and other polar molecules.
Agglomeration:Agglomeration is the process of forming larger particles from smaller ones. This can happen naturally, such as when dust particles clump together, or it can be done artificially, such as when small droplets of liquid are sprayed into the air and then coalesce into larger droplets.
Aggressive Water:Aggressive water is water that has a high pH and is highly alkaline. This type of water can be damaging to plants and animals, and it can also cause corrosion of metals.
Algae: Algae are simple plant-like organisms that live in aquatic environments. Algae range in size from microscopic single-celled organisms to large multi-celled organisms. Some algae are capable of photosynthesis, while others are not.
Algal blooms:An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine environments. Common causes of algal blooms include excess nutrients in the water, changes in water temperature, and changes in the amount of sunlight available to the algae.
Aliquot:An aliquot is a portion or sample of a material that is representative of the whole. It is typically used in reference to a small quantity of a liquid or solid that is taken from a larger sample for analysis.
Alkalinity:Alkalinity is a measure of the ability of water to neutralize acids. It is expressed as the equivalent concentration of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in solution. Alkalinity is important in controlling the pH of water and plays a role in the cycling of nutrients and other chemicals in aquatic ecosystems.
Allocation Carryover:Allocation carryover refers to the practice of carrying over unused portions of an allocation from one year to the next. This can be done with water allocations, fishing quotas, and other natural resources that are allocated on a yearly basis. Allocation carryover can help to ensure that users have access to the resources they need while also preventing waste.
Alluvium:Alluvium is sediment that has been deposited by flowing water. It typically consists of gravel, sand, silt, and clay particles that have been transported from their point of origin and deposited in another location. Alluvium can be found in riverbeds, floodplains, and other areas where water flow has occurred.
Anaerobic:Anaerobic refers to conditions where there is no oxygen present. Anaerobic bacteria are able to thrive in these conditions by using alternative methods of respiration. Anaerobic conditions can occur naturally or be created by humans through activities such as sewage treatment and food production.
Anion:An anion is an atom or molecule that has gained one or more electrons, giving it a net negative charge. Anions are found in a variety of environments, including in water (where they are known as hydroxide ions), in soil (as part of minerals), and in the atmosphere (as part of pollution).
Anode:The anode is the electrode at which oxidation occurs in an electrolytic cell. The anode is usually made of a metal that is easily oxidized, such as copper or zinc. In a galvanic cell, the anode is the electrode at which reduction occurs.
Aquatic:Aquatic refers to anything relating to water. This can include oceans, lakes, rivers, and even rain. Aquatic life includes all plants and animals that live in water. Aquatic pollution is any type of pollution that enters the water supply, such as chemicals or oil spills.
Aquatic Pollution:Aquatic pollution is any type of pollution that enters the water supply, such as chemicals or oil spills. Aquatic pollution can be harmful to both humans and aquatic life. It is important to take measures to prevent aquatic pollution, such as properly disposing of chemicals and oil products.
Aqueous:Aqueous refers to anything containing water. This can include solutions, emulsions, and suspensions. Aqueous solutions are often used in cleaning and disinfecting because they are effective at dissolving dirt and killing bacteria.
Aqueous Solubility:The aqueous solubility of a substance is the maximum concentration of that substance that can be dissolved in water. The solubility of a substance depends on the temperature of the water, the pressure of the water, and the chemical composition of the water.
Aquifer:An aquifer is a body of water-saturated rock from which groundwater can be extracted. Aquifers are typically composed of sand, gravel, or limestone.
Aquitard:An aquitard is a layer of impermeable rock that prevents the flow of groundwater. Aquitards are typically composed of clay or shale.
Aromatics:Aromatics are compounds that contain one or more benzene rings. Aromatics are found in crude oil and are used in the production of gasoline, plastics, and other products.
Assimilation:Assimilation is the process by which plants take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into organic matter such as glucose. Assimilation occurs through photosynthesis.
Assimilative Capacity:The assimilative capacity of an ecosystem is the maximum rate at which it can take up and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The assimilative capacity of an ecosystem is determined by its vegetation, soils, and climate.
ATCM:The Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body responsible for ensuring that therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, and blood products) are safe, effective, and of high quality. The TGA also provides information to consumers and health professionals about therapeutic goods.
Atom:An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the chemical properties of that element. Atoms are made up of protons and neutrons in a central nucleus, with electrons orbiting around this nucleus.
Atomic Number:The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element. The atomic number determines which element an atom is, as each element has a unique atomic number.
Attenuation:Attenuation is the reduction in intensity of a signal over distance. In telecommunications, attenuation affects the strength of a signal as it travels through a medium such as air, water, or glass. Attenuation can also refer to the loss of sound energy as it travels through a medium such as air or water.
Attenuation Tank:An attenuation tank is a type of storage tank used to store water for irrigation purposes. Attenuation tanks are designed to reduce the peak flow rate of runoff from rainfall or snowmelt events, and help to control downstream flooding and erosion.
Attrition: In biology, attrition refers to the process by which individuals within a population die or are removed from the population due to factors such as predation, disease, or emigration. Attrition can also refer to the wearing away of something over time due to friction or erosion.
Available Chlorine: Available chlorine is a measure of the amount of chlorine in a solution that is available for disinfection purposes. Available chlorine is usually expressed as a percentage of the total chlorine concentration in a solution.
Back Pressure:Back pressure is the force that opposes the flow of fluid in a pipe. It can be caused by many factors, including friction from the walls of the pipe, the weight of the fluid itself, and gravity. In some cases, back pressure can be beneficial, such as when it is used to keep fluids from flowing backwards in a pipe. However, too much back pressure can cause problems, such as reduced flow rate or even complete blockage of the pipe.
Back Siphonage:Back siphonage is a type of siphoning that occurs when there is a decrease in water pressure on one side of a valve or other obstruction. This can cause water to flow backwards through the valve or obstruction and into the piping on the other side. Back siphonage can be prevented by ensuring that there is always enough water pressure on both sides of the valve or obstruction.
Backwashing:Backwashing is a process of reversing the flow of water in a pipe or filter to remove debris and contaminants. It is often used to clean filters and pipes that have become clogged with dirt and other particles. Backwashing can also be used to remove bacteria and other microorganisms from water supplies.
Bacteria:Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found in nearly every environment on Earth. They are known for their ability to cause disease, but many species are actually beneficial to humans and other organisms. Bacteria are essential for decomposing organic matter, cycling nutrients, and forming symbiotic relationships with other organisms.
Bacterial:Bacterial refers to anything related to bacteria, including their structure, function, ecology, and evolution. Bacterial cells are typically much smaller than eukaryotic cells, and they lack many of the organelles found in eukaryotes. Most bacteria live in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, but some species are pathogens that cause disease.
Baffle:A baffle is a device used to redirect or obstruct the flow of fluid (such as air, liquid, or gas) in order to control noise levels or improve efficiency. Baffles are often used in exhaust systems to reduce noise by deflecting sound waves away from the source. They can also be used in engines and pumps to improve efficiency by reducing turbulence and increasing flow rate.
Base: The lowest part or edge of something, especially the part on which it rests or is supported
Base Levelling Steels: A type of steel used in construction to provide a level surface on which to build
Bed Load: Material that is transported by a river or other body of water and deposited on the bed of the water body
Benthic Zone: The region of a body of water that is closest to the bottom, where most aquatic plants and animals live
Bicarbonates: A salt or ester of bicarbonic acid, containing the anion HCO3-
Binder: A substance used to bind together other materials, typically by coating them or adhering to them
Bioaccumulation:The accumulation of a substance in the tissues of an organism to levels that exceed those in the surrounding environment. This can happen when an organism takes in more of the substance than it excretes, or when the substance is stored in the body tissues and not metabolised. Bioaccumulation can occur with both organic and inorganic substances, and can have harmful effects on the health of an organism.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):The amount of oxygen required by microorganisms to break down organic matter in water. The BOD test is used to measure the pollution level of water, by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria as they decompose organic matter. A high BOD level indicates a high level of pollution.
Biocide:A substance that kills or inhibits the growth of living organisms. Biocides are used to control pests such as insects, rodents and fungi, and are also used as disinfectants and sanitizers. Some biocides are toxic to humans and animals, so care must be taken when using them.
Biodegradable Pollutants:Pollutants that can be broken down by biological processes into simpler, harmless substances. Biodegradable pollutants include sewage, food waste and paper products. They can be broken down by bacteria or other microorganisms through decomposition.
Biofilm:A thin layer of microorganisms that forms on surfaces in contact with water. Biofilms are composed of bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa, and can cause problems such as clogging pipes and fouling water supplies. They can also harbour pathogens that can cause disease.
Biological Contaminants:contaminants that are derived from living organisms or their products. Biological contaminants include bacteria, viruses, fungi, moulds and dust mites. They can cause infections, allergies and other health problems.
Biological Oxidation:Biological oxidation is the process of using oxygen to break down organic matter. This process is essential for the treatment of wastewater and the removal of pollutants from the environment. Biological oxidation can be used to remove a variety of contaminants, including carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Bioaccumulation:Biologically Activated Carbon: Biologically activated carbon (BAC) is a type of carbon that has been treated to increase its ability to adsorb organic contaminants from water. BAC is often used in water treatment applications to remove taste and odor compounds, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) from water.
Biomonitoring: Biomonitoring is the use of living organisms to monitor environmental conditions, such as pollution levels, water quality, or climate change. Biomonitoring can be used to assess the health of an ecosystem, as well as the effects of human activities on the environment.
Bioremediation: Bioremediation is the use of living organisms to clean up contaminated sites. This process can be used to remove pollutants from soil, water, or air. Bioremediation can also be used to break down hazardous waste materials into less harmful substances.
Biota: The biota is the sum of all the world's living organisms - plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms. The biota includes both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Biotransformation: Biotransformation is the process by which living organisms convert one chemical substance into another. This process can be used to break down pollutants into less harmful substances or to produce useful chemicals from renewable resources.
Blackwater: Blackwater is water that has been contaminated with sewage or other wastes. Blackwater can contain harmful bacteria and viruses that can cause illness if ingested or if it comes into contact with open wounds.
Blind Spots:In driving, a blind spot is an area around the vehicle that cannot be directly observed by the driver. Blind spots exist on both sides of the vehicle, and can be created by objects or people in the environment, as well as by the design of the vehicle itself.
Blinding:The act of making someone unable to see. This can be done temporarily or permanently, and can be caused by a number of things including physical objects, bright lights, or chemicals.
BOD:An abbreviation for "biochemical oxygen demand", a measure of the amount of oxygen that is required by microorganisms to break down organic matter in water. BOD is used as an indicator of water quality, and high BOD levels can indicate pollution from sewage or other sources.
BOD and Waste Water Treatment: The process of removing contaminants from water using biological or chemical means.
Boiling Point: The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor.
Bore: A hole drilled in the ground for the purpose of extracting water or other fluids.
Bore Hole: A deep, cylindrical hole drilled in the ground, often used to access groundwater.
Bottled Water: Water that has been packaged in bottles for consumption.
Bracing System: A system of supports used to stabilize a structure.
Brackish Water: Water that is not fresh, typically containing high levels of salt.
Break Tank: A break tank is a water storage tank used to store treated water prior to it being distributed for use. The tank provides a buffer between the water treatment plant and the distribution system, and helps to ensure that treated water is available in the event of a power outage or other emergency.
Breakpoint Chlorination: Breakpoint chlorination is a water treatment process that uses chlorine to disinfect water. The process involves adding chlorine to water until a "breakpoint" is reached, at which point the chlorine will effectively disinfect the water.
Breakthrough: In water treatment, breakthrough is the point at which a filter or other treatment device becomes unable to remove contaminants from water. Breakthrough can be caused by a number of factors, including clogging of the filter media, depletion of the active ingredients in a chemical treatment, or simply reaching the end of the useful life of the device.
Brine: Brine is a solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. It is used in water treatment to remove hardness from water, and can also be used to disinfect surfaces or equipment.
BS en 13280: BS en 13280 is a European standard for drinking water quality. It sets minimum standards for the quality of drinking water, including parameters such as bacteria levels, turbidity, and chemical contaminants.
Buffer: A buffer is a substance that helps to maintain pH balance in a solution. In water treatment, buffers are used to maintain pH levels during chemical processes such as chlorination.
Candle Filter: A candle filter is a type of filter used to remove impurities from water. The filter consists of a cylindrical chamber filled with porous material (usually activated carbon), through which water is passed. As the water passes through the chamber, impurities are adsorbed onto the surface of the activated carbon
Capillary action: The ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or against, external forces like gravity.
Capillary zone: The portion of a soil column where water flows primarily by capillary action.
Capillary membranes: Membranes with pores that are small enough to allow only liquids and very small molecules to pass through them.
Carbon: An element that is essential to all known forms of life. It is the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen.
Carbonate hardness: A measure of the amount of carbonate ions in water. High carbonate hardness can cause problems with plumbing and water treatment equipment.
Carbonates: Compounds containing the carbonate ion (CO32-). Carbonates are basic compounds and react with acids to form salt, water, and carbon dioxide gas.
Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to alter cell metabolism. Substances that cause cancer are called carcinogens. A carcinogen may be a physical (e.g., ultraviolet radiation) or a chemical agent (e.g., aflatoxin).
Carryover: Carryover is the transfer of a substance from one object to another. For example, when you cook meat on a grill, some of the fat and juices from the meat can drip down onto the coals. The heat from the coals vaporizes these juices, and they rise back up onto the meat, giving it flavor. This is an example of carryover cooking.
Cartridge Filter: A cartridge filter is a type of filter that uses a cartridge filled with media to remove impurities from water or other liquids. The cartridge contains one or more layers of media, such as activated carbon, that trap impurities as the liquid passes through them. Cartridge filters are used in a variety of applications, including drinking water treatment, swimming pool filtration, and industrial wastewater treatment.
Cartridge Filters: Cartridge filters are types of filters that use cartridges filled with media to remove impurities from water or other liquids. The cartridges contain one or more layers of media, such as activated carbon, that trap impurities as the liquid passes through them. Cartridge filters are used in a variety of applications, including drinking water treatment, swimming pool filtration, and industrial wastewater treatment.
Catalyses: Catalyses is an alternative spelling of catalysts. Catalysts are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being consumed by the reaction. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in biological systems; many industrial catalysts are metals or metal oxides.
Catch Basin: A catch basin is a type of stormwater management structure designed to capture runoff from impervious surfaces like parking lots and streets and prevent it from entering storm sewers and waterways. Catch basins typically have a grate on top to keep debris out and allow water to enter, and they are usually connected to underground pipes leading to detention ponds or other stormwater management facilities
Catchment:A catchment is an area of land where water from rain or melting snow collects and drains into a river, lake, reservoir, or aquifer. The word can also refer to the water that collects in this area. Catchments are often divided into smaller sub-catchments, which are then drained by tributaries.
Cathode:A cathode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a device or system. The opposite of an anode, a cathode is typically negative in voltage with respect to the anode. Cathodes are often made of metals such as copper, silver, or zinc.
Cation:A cation is an atom or molecule that has lost one or more electrons and has a positive charge as a result. Cations are attracted to and bond with anions, which have gained electrons and have a negative charge. Cations are found in all types of matter, including minerals, metals, and organic compounds.
Centrifugation:Centrifugation is a process that uses centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, density, or shape. Centrifuges can be used to separate cells from blood, viruses from cells, or proteins from other proteins. Centrifugation is also used in many industrial processes such as the production of fuel additives and the purification of water.
CFU:CFU stands for colony-forming units. CFUs are used to measure the number of viable bacteria or other microorganisms in a sample. A CFU is defined as the number of colonies that can be formed by a single bacterium or other microorganism when it is plated on agar media.
Check Valve:A check valve is a valve that allows fluid to flow in only one direction. Check valves are often used in plumbing systems to prevent backflow of water or other liquids. They are also used in many industrial applications such as oil and gas pipelines, where they prevent backflow of fluids that could damage equipment
Chelating Agents:A chelating agent is a chemical compound that can bind to and remove metal ions from solution. This process is known as chelation. Chelating agents are used in a variety of industries, including water treatment, food processing, and pharmaceuticals.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): the amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize all of the organic matter in a sample of water. COD is used as a measure of water pollution and is an important factor in the treatment of wastewater.
Chemical Pollution: the contamination of water by chemicals that can have harmful effects on human health or the environment. Chemical pollution can come from a variety of sources, including factories, agriculture, and even our own homes.
Chemical Weathering: the breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions. Chemical weathering can be caused by rainwater, acids in the atmosphere, or even bacteria.
Chloramines: a type of disinfectant used in water treatment that is made by adding chlorine to ammonia. Chloramines are less effective at killing bacteria than chlorine, but they are more stable and last longer in the water supply.
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: a group of chemicals that contain both chlorine and carbon atoms. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are used as solvents, pesticides, and refrigerants, but they can also be pollutants if they escape into the environment.
Chlorinated Solvent: a type of solvent that contains chlorine atoms. Chlorinated solvents are used in many industrial processes, but they can also be pollutants if they escape into the environment.
Chlorination:Chlorination is the process of adding chlorine to water in order to disinfect it and kill any harmful bacteria or microorganisms. Chlorine is a powerful disinfectant that is effective at killing a wide range of bacteria and other pathogens. However, it is also a strong oxidant, which can cause problems if not used correctly.
Chlorine-Contact Chamber:A chlorine-contact chamber is a tank or chamber that contains chlorine in order to disinfect water. The chlorine contact chamber is usually the last step in the water treatment process, where the water is exposed to a high concentration of chlorine for a period of time in order to kill any remaining bacteria or microorganisms.
Clarity:Clarity refers to the clearness of water. Clear water is free from suspended particles, dissolved minerals, and other impurities that can make it appear cloudy. Water clarity is important for many applications, including drinking water, swimming pools, and aquariums.
Climate:The climate of a particular place is the average weather conditions over a long period of time, typically at least 30 years. Climate is different from weather, which is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.
Climate change refers to a broad array of environmental degradation that is predicted to result from increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, including global warming, alterations in precipitation, sea level changes and more extreme weather events.
Coagulation: The process of forming clots from blood cells and proteins.
Coalescence: The process of two or more droplets coming together to form a larger droplet.
Coastal Zone: The area of land near the coast, between the high tide mark and the low tide mark.
Coliform Bacteria:Coliform bacteria are a group of bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and on plant surfaces. They are often used as indicators of water quality, as they can indicate the presence of other potentially harmful bacteria.
Coliform Index:The coliform index is a measure of the number of coliform bacteria present in a water sample. It is often used as an indicator of water quality, as high levels of coliform bacteria can indicate the presence of other potentially harmful bacteria.
Collector Sewers:Collector sewers are a type of sewer system that collects wastewater from homes and businesses and transports it to a treatment plant. They are typically gravity-fed systems, meaning that the wastewater flows downhill through the pipes to the treatment plant.
Colloids:Colloids are particles that remain suspended in a liquid or gas. They can be either natural or man-made, and their size can range from very small (e.g. smoke particles) to larger (e.g. sand particles). Colloids can have a variety of effects on water quality, depending on their composition and concentration.
Combined Sewer:A combined sewer is a type of sewer system that collects both wastewater and stormwater in the same pipes. During dry weather, the wastewater is transported to a treatment plant where it is treated before being discharged into receiving waters. However, during wet weather conditions, the increased volume of water in the pipes can cause them to overflow, resulting in untreated sewage being discharged into receiving waters.
Composite Sample: A composite sample is a sample that is made up of multiple individual samples. The individual samples are combined together to form the composite sample.
Compounds: A compound is a substance that is made up of two or more elements that are chemically bonded together.
Concentrate: A concentrate is a substance that has been concentrated or purified.
Concentration: Concentration is the process of increasing the amount of a substance in a given volume.
Concentration Process: The concentration process is a process used to increase the amount of a substance in a given volume.
Condensate: Condensate is a liquid that has been condensed from a gas.
Condensation: The process of water vapor turning into liquid water.
Condensation Tray: A tray placed under a drip line or other potential sources of water leaks to collect and direct the water to a drain.
Conduit: A pipe or other structure used to convey water.
Confined Aquifer: An aquifer that is bounded above and below by impermeable layers of rock or sediment.
Connections: The point at which two or more pipes or other structures are joined together.
Consumptive Water Use: Water that is used in a way that it cannot be reused or returned to its source, such as evaporation, transpiration, or incorporation into a product.
Contact Time:The contact time is the amount of time that a water droplet spends in contact with a surface. The longer the contact time, the greater the chance of contaminants being removed from the water droplet.
Contaminant:A contaminant is any substance that has the potential to pollute or contaminate a water supply. Common water contaminants include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and chemicals.
Contents Gauge:A contents gauge is a device used to measure the amount of liquid in a tank or container. Contents gauges are often used in conjunction with pumps and other devices to ensure that tanks are not emptied too quickly or filled too full.
Conventional Sewer Systems:Conventional sewer systems are gravity-based systems that rely on gravity to move wastewater from homes and businesses to treatment facilities. Conventional sewer systems are typically designed for wet weather conditions and can be overwhelmed during heavy rains, resulting in sewage overflows.
Conveyance Loss:Conveyance loss is the loss of water from a system due to evaporation, leakage, or other factors. Conveyance losses can occur in both natural and man-made systems, such as reservoirs and canals.
Cooling Tower: A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that removes waste heat from a power plant or other large industrial facility. The water is cooled by evaporation, which leaves the minerals in the water behind. The cooled water is then recirculated back to the power plant or other industrial facility to be used again.
Corrosivity: Corrosivity is the ability of a substance to cause corrosion, or the deterioration of a material due to its interaction with another substance.
Cover: A cover is a protective layer that covers something else. It can be made of any material, but it is often made of cloth, paper, or plastic.
Cross Flow: A type of water flow in which water flows perpendicular to the direction of the main current.
Cross Flow Filtration: Cross flow filtration is a type of filtration in which the fluid to be filtered flows perpendicular to the filter membrane. This type of filtration is often used in water treatment and wastewater treatment applications.
Cryptosporidium: A genus of parasitic alveolates that can cause cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease in humans and animals.
Cultural Eutrophication: The process by which a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients (such as phosphorus and nitrogen) that promote the growth of aquatic plants and algae.
Current: The movement of water in a particular direction.
Cycle: The repeating pattern of events that make up a natural process. In ecology, cycles can refer to the way elements (such as carbon, nitrogen, and water) move through the environment.
Dams: A structure built across a river or stream to hold back water and create a reservoir.
De-Foaming Agents:De-foaming agents are chemicals that are added to a liquid in order to reduce or eliminate the formation of foam. Foam can be a problem in many industrial processes, as it can cause equipment to malfunction or become clogged. De-foaming agents work by reducing the surface tension of the liquid, which prevents the formation of bubbles. There are many different types of de-foaming agents available, and the most effective one for a particular application will depend on the properties of the liquid being treated.
Dead Storage:Dead storage is water that is stored in a reservoir but cannot be used because it is not connected to an outlet. This water is often referred to as "dead water" because it has no practical purpose. Dead storage can be created by drought, by dam construction, or by any other process that reduces the flow of water into a reservoir. When water levels in a reservoir decline, the portion of the reservoir that is below the outlet becomes dead storage. The amount of dead storage varies from reservoir to reservoir, and it can range from a few million gallons to billions of gallons.
Dead Water:Dead water is water that is stored in a reservoir but cannot be used because it is not connected to an outlet. This water is often referred to as "dead water" because it has no practical purpose. Dead water can be created by drought, by dam construction, or by any other process that reduces the flow of water into a reservoir. When water levels in a reservoir decline, the portion of the reservoir that is below the outlet becomes dead storage. The amount of dead storage varies from reservoir to reservoir, and it can range from a few million gallons to billions of gallons.
Decant:To decant something is to pour it off from one container into another, leaving any sediment or solid matter behind. Decanting is often done with wine or other liquids that contain sediment, in order to avoid pouring this sediment into glasses or other containers. Decanting can also be used to separate two liquids of different densities, such as oil and vinegar.
Decarbonation: The process of removing carbon dioxide from a gas or liquid. Decarbonation can occur naturally, through chemical reactions or through physical processes such as adsorption
Decomposition:Decomposition is the process of breaking down organic matter into simpler substances. This can be done through chemical or biological means.
Defluoridation:Defluoridation is the removal of fluoride from water. This can be done through a variety of methods, including reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and activated alumina.
Degasification:Degasification is the removal of dissolved gases from water. This can be done through a variety of methods, including aeration, stripping, and vacuum degassing.
Deionisation:Deionisation is the removal of ions from water. This can be done through a variety of methods, including ion exchange and reverse osmosis.
Delayed Action Inlet Valve:A delayed action inlet valve is a valve that controls the flow of water into a tank or other container. The valve is designed to open and close slowly in order to prevent sudden changes in pressure that could damage the tank or container.
Demineralisation: The process of removing minerals from water. This can be done through a variety of methods, including reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and distillation.
Demiwater: Water that has had its mineral content removed. Demiwater is often used in scientific and industrial applications where purity is required.
Denitrification: The process of removing nitrates from water. This can be done through a variety of methods, including reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and distillation.
Depression Storage: A type of storage tank that is designed to hold water below the ground level. This allows for gravity to be used to supply water to homes and businesses in an area.
Depth Filtration: A type of filtration that uses a layer of media to remove contaminants from water. Depth filtration is often used in drinking water treatment plants to remove particles from water.
Desalination: The process of removing salt from water. This can be done through a variety of methods, including reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and distillation.
Desorption: The process of removing contaminants from water using a sorbent material. This can be done through a variety of methods, including reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and distillation.
Detention Time:Detention time is the amount of time that a wastewater effluent spends in a treatment system before it is discharged. The detention time can be controlled by the design of the treatment system and the operating conditions. It is important to have an appropriate detention time to allow the treatment process to work effectively.
Detergent:Detergents are surfactants that are used for cleaning purposes. They are usually made from synthetic materials and can be found in many household products, such as laundry detergent, dishwashing detergent, and shampoo. Detergents work by reducing the surface tension of water, which allows them to remove dirt and grime more effectively.
Dewater:Dewatering is the process of removing water from solid material, such as sludge or sewage. Dewatering can be accomplished through a variety of methods, such as centrifugation, filtration, or evaporation. Dewatering is often necessary prior to disposal or further treatment of wastewater effluent.
Diffuser:A diffuser is a device that is used to disperse a gas or liquid into a surrounding medium. Diffusers are often used in wastewater treatment systems to distribute air or treated effluent evenly throughout the system. Diffusers can be made from a variety of materials, such as plastic, metal, or ceramic.
Diffusion:Diffusion is the process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Diffusion occurs when there is a gradient between two areas, such as when there is more dissolved oxygen in one area than another. Diffusion will continue until the gradient is eliminated and the two areas are at equilibrium.
Digester:A digester is a tank in which sewage sludge undergoes anaerobic digestion. During digestion, microorganisms break down the organic matter in the sludge, resulting in methane gas and carbon dioxide. The methane gas can be used as a fuel source, while the carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
Diluting Water:Diluting water refers to adding water to another substance in order to reduce its concentration. Diluting water is often done to reduce the strength of acids or other corrosive materials. When diluting water, it is important to use clean water that does not contain any contaminants that could potentially harm people or equipment
Direct run-off is water that flows over the surface of the land, rather than seeping into the ground. It is a major source of water pollution, as it can pick up pollutants from the land and carry them into waterways.
Discharge is the release of water from a body of water, such as a river or lake. It can also refer to the amount of water flowing from a body of water over a given period of time.
Disinfectants are chemicals that are used to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. They are often used in hospitals and other public places to prevent the spread of disease.
Disinfection is the process of using disinfectants to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. It is often used in hospitals and other public places to prevent the spread of disease.
Dissolve is to cause a solid substance to become liquid by mixing it with a liquid. For example, sugar will dissolve in water.
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF): A process used to remove suspended solids, oils, and other contaminants from water.
Dissolved Oxygen: A measure of the amount of oxygen dissolved in water.
Dissolved Solids: The total amount of inorganic and organic matter present in water.
Distillation: A process used to purify water by boiling it and condensing the steam.
Division: The process of separating a mixture into its component parts.
Dosing Inlet: A pipe or opening through which a chemical is added to a body of water.
Drainage Division:A drainage division is a system of natural or artificial channels that drains excess water from an area. The purpose of a drainage division is to prevent flooding and to protect against soil erosion.
Dredging:Dredging is the removal of sediments and debris from the bottom of a body of water. It is often done to keep waterways clear for navigation or to increase the depth of a waterway. Dredging can also be used to remove contaminants from water bodies.
Drop Arm:A drop arm is a type of gate that is used to control the flow of water in a channel or conduit. Drop arms are often used in irrigation systems to regulate the amount of water that flows into an area.
Drought:A drought is a period of time when there is little or no rainfall. This can lead to problems such as crop failure, water shortages, and wildfires. Droughts can also cause economic hardship for people who depend on agriculture for their livelihoods.
Duplicates:Duplicates are two or more things that are exactly alike. Duplicates can occur naturally, such as when twins are born, or they can be created artificially, such as when copies of documents are made. Duplicates can be useful, but they can also cause confusion and waste if not managed properly.
Dystrophic Lakes:A dystrophic lake is a water body that has been significantly impacted by human activity. The most common cause of dystrophy is eutrophication, which occurs when a water body becomes overloaded with nutrients. This can lead to the growth of excessive amounts of algae and aquatic plants, which can then die and decompose, leading to the depletion of oxygen in the water. This can create a serious problem for the fish and other aquatic creatures that live in the lake, as they may suffocate and die.
Ecosystem:An ecosystem is a community of different species of living organisms and their physical environment. Ecosystems can be found in all sorts of places, from small ponds to large oceans. They can also be found in different types of habitats, such as forests, deserts, and grasslands. All ecosystems have abiotic (non-living) components, such as sunlight, air, water, and soil. These components provide resources that are necessary for life. Biotic (living) components include plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. These organisms interact with each other and with their physical environment to produce the conditions necessary for life.
EFB:The EFB is the European Federation of Biotechnology. It is an international non-profit organisation that promotes biotechnology research and development across Europe. The EFB has over 500 member organisations from more than 40 countries. Its members include universities, research institutes, companies, government agencies, and professional associations. The EFB promotes cooperation between its members and provides a forum for discussion on issues related to biotechnology research and development.
Effective Capacity:Effective capacity is the amount of work that an organisation or system can realistically achieve within a given period of time. It takes into account factors such as absenteeism, downtime due to maintenance or repairs, and unexpected events that may impact production levels. Effective capacity is often less than the theoretical maximum capacity because it reflects the actual conditions under which work is carried out.
An ejector is a device that is used to expel or discharge a substance from a container or system. Ejectors are often used in situations where it is not possible or practical to use other methods of discharge, such as gravity or pumps.Ejectors can be used to discharge liquids, gases, or solids from a variety of containers, including tanks, pipes, and vessels. They can also be used to discharge substances from systems, such as air conditioning systems and refrigeration systems.
El Niño:El Niño is a climatic phenomenon that is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and eastern tropical Pacific, typically around Christmas. This warm water alters the atmospheric pressure gradient, resulting in changes in global weather patterns.
El Niño Southern Oscillation:The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a recurring climate pattern involving changes in the surface temperature of the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. The ENSO cycle consists of three phases: El Niño, La Niña, and neutral conditions. Each phase triggers a different set of global weather conditions.
Electrical Charge:An electrical charge is a physical property of matter that causes it to interact with other charged matter. Charges are either positive or negative. Like charges repel each other, while opposite charges attract each other. The strength of this force is proportional to the amount of charge on each object.
Electrical Conductivity:The electrical conductivity of a material is a measure of its ability to conduct an electric current. Conductivity is usually expressed as a conductivity index or as a conductivity coefficient. The SI unit for electrical conductivity is the siemens per meter (S/m).
Electrodialysis:Electrodialysis is a process that uses electric fields to separate ions from solutions. This process can be used to purify water or to concentrate dissolved minerals from brine solutions.
Electrolysis:Electrolysis is a process that uses electricity to drive chemical reactions. These reactions can be used to produce metals from their ores, purify water, or produce chlorine gas from salt water.
Electrolyte: A substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in water or other polar solvent.
Electrons: The negatively charged particles of an atom.
Elements: The simplest form of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
Elutriation: The process of separating particles from a mixture by using a liquid or gas to carry them away.
Emulsifier: A substance that stabilizes an emulsion, preventing the separation of the phases.
Emulsion: A mixture of two or more immiscible liquids, held together by a third substance (the emulsifier) that coats the surfaces of the other liquids and prevents them from coalescing.
End-of-Pipe Techniques:End-of-pipe techniques are pollution control methods that are used to treat exhaust gases from industrial plants before they are released into the atmosphere. The most common type of end-of-pipe technique is a scrubber, which uses water to remove particulates from the exhaust gas.
In business, an enduring supply is a product or service that a company can continue to provide over an extended period of time. This is in contrast to items with a limited shelf life or those that are subject to fashion trends.Enduring supplies are often seen as essential or necessary for a company to maintain its operations. For example, a manufacturer may require a steady supply of raw materials in order to keep production going, while a retailer may need to have a consistent stock of popular items to meet customer demand.
Enrichment:Enrichment is the process of increasing the concentration of a particular component in a material. Enrichment can be done for a variety of reasons, including to increase the concentration of an essential nutrient in food or to increase the proportion of a desired isotope in a sample.
ENSO:ENSO is the acronym for El Niño Southern Oscillation, a naturally occurring climate phenomenon that consists of alternating periods of warm and cool water in the tropical Pacific Ocean. ENSO can have significant impacts on weather patterns around the globe, and is therefore closely monitored by meteorologists.
Entitlement Security:Entitlement security is the assurance that individuals will receive certain benefits or privileges that they are entitled to by law or custom. Entitlement security is often used in reference to social welfare programs, such as Social Security or Medicare in the United States.
Entitlement System:An entitlement system is a set of rules and regulations that govern who is eligible for what benefits from the government. Entitlement systems can be very complex, and vary significantly from one country to another.
Environmental Flow:In Australia, environmental flow refers to the water that is necessary to maintain the health of a river system. This includes the water needed to sustain aquatic ecosystems, support native plants and animals, and maintain the ecological processes that keep the river functioning. Environmental flows can be affected by many factors, including drought, climate change, development, and pollution.
Environmental Water:Water that is set aside for the environment, to maintain ecological processes or to support particular environmental values. In Australia, environmental water is managed by the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder and state water authorities.
Environmental Water Release:The release of water from storage for environmental purposes. In Australia, environmental water releases are managed by the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder and state water authorities.
Equilibrium Valve:A valve that automatically regulates the flow of water so that it remains at a constant level, regardless of changes in demand or supply. Equilibrium valves are used in a variety of applications, including irrigation, domestic water supply and wastewater treatment.
Erosion:The process by which soil, rock and other materials are transported by wind, water or ice. Erosion can occur at a variety of scales, from the erosion of individual grains of sand by wind to the erosion of entire mountainsides by rivers.
Eschericha Coli (E. Coli):A type of bacteria that is found in the environment, in food and in the gut of humans and animals. E. coli can cause food poisoning if it contaminates food that is not cooked properly.
Estuary:An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water where fresh and salt water mix. Estuaries are found at the mouths of rivers where they meet the sea. The word “estuary” comes from the Latin word for “river mouth”.
Eutrophic:Eutrophic waters are waters that have a high concentration of nutrients, typically from human activity such as sewage discharge or agricultural runoff. Eutrophication can lead to excessive growth of aquatic plants and algae, which can deplete oxygen levels in the water and create problems for fish and other aquatic organisms.
Eutrophication:Eutrophication is the process by which water bodies become enriched in nutrients, typically from human activity such as sewage discharge or agricultural runoff. Eutrophication can lead to excessive growth of aquatic plants and algae, which can deplete oxygen levels in the water and create problems for fish and other aquatic organisms.
Evaporation:Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas. Evaporation occurs when water is heated to its boiling point and then evaporates into the air. When evaporation happens, the water vapor that is produced rises into the atmosphere.
Evaporation Ponds:Evaporation ponds are shallow ponds that are used to concentrate brine solutions through evaporation. Brine is a solution of salt in water, and evaporation ponds are used to remove water from brine solutions so that the salt can be harvested.
Evapotranspiration:Evapotranspiration is the combined process of evaporation and transpiration. Transpiration is the process by which plants release water vapor into the atmosphere through their leaves. Evapotranspiration occurs when water is evaporated from the surface of the earth and transpired by plants.
Farm Dam:A farm dam is a type of dam used to store water for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Farm dams are typically smaller than other types of dams, and are often built using earth-filled embankments or concrete walls.
Feed and Expansion Tank:A feed and expansion tank is a type of tank used to store water for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Feed and expansion tanks are typically larger than other types of tanks, and are often built using steel or concrete walls.
Fermentation:Fermentation is the process of converting carbohydrates into alcohols or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation is used to produce wine, beer, yogurt, bread, and other products.
Filter Medium:A filter medium is a material used to remove impurities from water or other liquids. Filter media can be made from a variety of materials, including sand, gravel, charcoal, and synthetic materials.
Filtrate:Filtrate is the liquid that passes through a filter during filtration. Filtrate may contain suspended particles, dissolved molecules, or both.
First Draw:The first draw is the volume of water drawn from a well during the initial pumping period. The first draw typically contains the highest concentration of contaminants because it includes water that has been in contact with the well walls for the longest time.
Fission:In nuclear physics, fission is the process by which a nucleus splits into two or more smaller nuclei as a result of an external force, such as an incoming particle. The fission process often produces free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays), and releases a large amount of energy.
Floc:In water treatment, a floc is a clump of insoluble material that forms as a result of flocculation, the process by which colloidal particles come together to form a larger mass. Flocs are typically composed of inorganic materials such as clay, silt, and organic matter.
Flocculation:Flocculation is the process by which colloidal particles come together to form a larger mass. This process can occur naturally, such as when clay particles bind together to form sedimentary rocks, or it can be induced by adding chemicals known as flocculants.
Floodplain:A floodplain is an area of land that is susceptible to flooding from rivers or other bodies of water. Floodplains are often found near rivers or lakes, and they can be natural or man-made.
Flotation:Flotation is the process by which objects float in water or other liquids. The object must be less dense than the liquid in order for flotation to occur.
Flow: The continuous movement of a fluid substance. In hydraulics, flow is the rate at which water or other fluid flows through a pipe or other conduit.
Flow Augmentation: The process of increasing the flow of a fluid. This can be done by adding more fluid, by increasing the speed of the fluid, or by decreasing the resistance to flow.
Fluorine: A chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. Fluorine is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine.
Flux: The rate of flow of a fluid or other substance. In physics and engineering, flux is usually given the symbol φ (phi).
Fouling: The build-up of unwanted material on a surface. Fouling can occur due to sedimentation, corrosion, or biological growth.
Foundation: The base upon which something is built or supported. In construction, a foundation is typically a concrete slab that supports a structure's weight.
Fractured Rock: A type of rock that has been broken into smaller pieces by a physical force such as a blow from a hammer. The term can also refer to the process of breaking rocks into smaller pieces.
Fragmentation: The process of breaking something into smaller pieces. Fragmentation can occur naturally, such as when rocks are broken down by weathering, or it can be caused by human activity, such as when explosives are used to break up rocks.
Freeboard: The distance between the waterline and the deck of a ship. Freeboard is important because it determines how much water the ship can safely carry without sinking.
Freezing: The process of turning a liquid into a solid by cooling it below its freezing point. Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit).
Freshwater: Water that contains no dissolved minerals or salt. Freshwater is found in rivers, lakes, and aquifers (underground layers of rock that contain water).
Giardia: A type of parasite that can cause an infection of the intestines known as giardiasis. Giardiasis symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Giardia infections can be treated with antibiotics.
Granular Activated Carbon: A type of carbon that is used to remove impurities from water. Granular activated carbon filters are commonly used in water purification systems.
Gravity Feed Tank: A gravity feed tank is a type of tank that uses the force of gravity to move water or other fluids from one location to another. The most common type of gravity feed tank is a water tank, but there are also tanks for other liquids, such as fuel or sewage. Gravity feed tanks can be either above ground or below ground.
Gray Water: Gray water is waste water that contains no fecal matter or urine, but may contain soap, grease, food particles, and other solids. Gray water can come from sinks, showers, laundry machines, and dishwashers. It is not safe to drink gray water, but it can be reused for other purposes, such as watering plants or flushing toilets.
Grey Water Tank: A grey water tank is a type of tank that stores gray water until it can be treated or reused. Grey water tanks are often used in homes and businesses to reduce the amount of fresh water that is used for non-potable purposes. Grey water tanks can be either above ground or below ground.
Groundwater: Groundwater is water that has seeped into the ground and is stored in the pores between rocks and soil particles. Groundwater is a major source of fresh water for many people around the world and plays an important role in the hydrological cycle.
Groundwater Discharge: Groundwater discharge is the release of groundwater into surface waters, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. Groundwater discharge can occur naturally or as a result of human activities, such as pumping from wells. Groundwater discharge is an important component of the global water cycle and helps to regulate the Earth’s climate.
Groundwater Hydrology: Groundwater hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of groundwater. It includes the assessment of groundwater resources and the investigation of groundwater contamination. Groundwater hydrology is a branch of earth science that overlaps with other disciplines such as geology, civil engineering, and hydrogeology.
Groundwater Level: The groundwater level is the height at which groundwater lies below the land surface. The groundwater level can fluctuate over time due to changes in precipitation levels, evaporation rates, and human activities such as pumping from wells.
Groundwater Management Plan:A groundwater management plan is a document that outlines the goals, objectives, and strategies for managing groundwater resources. It is typically prepared by a team of experts in hydrology, engineering, and water resource management. The plan may be developed for a specific watershed or aquifer, or it may be general in nature.
Groundwater Recharge:Groundwater recharge is the process by which water is added to an aquifer, making it available for storage and use. Recharge can come from a variety of sources, including precipitation, surface water infiltration, and groundwater seepage. The amount of recharge that occurs in an area depends on a number of factors, such as climate, geology, land use, and the amount of vegetation present.
Guardrail:A guardrail is a barrier designed to protect people or vehicles from falling off a edge. Guardrails are commonly used along highways and on bridges and other structures where there is a potential for a drop-off. They can be made from a variety of materials, including wood, metal, or concrete.
Gully:A gully is a narrow channel that is carved into the ground by running water. gullies can be found in many different landscapes, from mountains to deserts. They are often formed by rainfall or snowmelt runoff eroding soft soils or bedrock. Gullies can also occur when there is a sudden change in the slope of the land surface.
Hard water:Hard water is water that contains high levels of dissolved minerals, such as calcium and magnesium. These minerals can cause a variety of problems, such as making it difficult to get soap to lather, leaving behind mineral deposits on fixtures and clothing, and clogging pipes. Hard water is a common problem in many parts of the world, but there are a few ways to mitigate its effects. One is to install a water softener, which removes the minerals from the water. Another is to use special soaps and detergents that are designed for hard water. Finally, some people simply choose to live with the effects of hard water, as it is not generally considered harmful to human health.
Heat Exchanger:A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact with each other. The heat exchanger can be used to transfer heat from one fluid to another, or from a solid surface to a fluid.
Heavy Metals:Heavy metals are chemical elements with a high density and a relatively high atomic number. The term "heavy metal" is used in several different ways, depending on the context. In chemistry, a heavy metal is an element that has a high density and is toxic at low concentrations. In geology, a heavy metal is an element with a high atomic number that is resistant to corrosion and wear. In biology, a heavy metal is an element that interferes with the normal function of enzymes or other proteins.
Heavy Water:Heavy water (deuterium oxide, 2H2O) is water that contains a higher than normal concentration of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (D). Heavy water is used as a moderator and coolant in nuclear reactors because it slows down neutrons without absorbing them. Heavy water reactors are more efficient than light water reactors and produce less plutonium-239, making them more difficult to use for nuclear weapons proliferation.
Held Environmental Water:Held environmental water is water that has been allocated for environmental purposes but has not yet been put to use. This may be due to delays in implementing environmental projects, or because the water is being held in reserve for future needs. Held environmental water can be released back into the environment when it is no longer needed, or it can be used for other purposes such as irrigation or power generation.
Henry's Law:Henry's law states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid. This law was first proposed by Henry Cavendish in 1776 and has since been found to apply to many different gases in many different liquids. The solubility of a gas increases as the pressure of the gas increases, and decreases as the pressure of the gas decreases.
A holding pond is a water body created for the purpose of storing water. The water is typically stored in the pond for a short period of time before being released or used for another purpose.
A homeowner water system is a system that supplies water to a home. The system typically includes a well, pump, and storage tank. The water is used for drinking, cooking, and other household needs.
Hot press sectional refers to a type of construction in which panels are joined together using heat and pressure. This type of construction is often used for making doors and windows.
Humidification is the process of adding moisture to the air. This can be done using a humidifier, which adds water vapor to the air. Humidification can also be achieved by planting vegetation, which releases water vapor into the air through transpiration.
Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of how easily water flows through a material. It is typically measured in units of centimeters per second (cm/s). Materials with high hydraulic conductivity allow water to flow through them easily, while materials with low hydraulic conductivity impede the flow of water.
The hydraulic gradient is the difference in pressure between two points in a fluid. The gradient can be caused by gravity, or by other forces such as centrifugal force or friction. The hydraulic gradient affects the flow of fluid through pipes and other channels.
A hydro-brake is a device used to control the flow of water. It consists of a chamber filled with water, into which the water flows from an upstream pipe. The hydro-brake slows the flow of water by creating resistance to its movement through the chamber.
Hydrocarbon: A hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting of both nitrogen and chlorine. Hydrocarbons are found in crude oil and natural gas, and are used to produce a variety of products, including gasoline, plastics, and chemicals.
Hydroelectric Power Water Use: Hydroelectric power water use refers to the amount of water required to generate electricity using hydropower. The amount of water needed depends on the type of hydropower plant and the efficiency of the plant.
Hydrogen: Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas that is the lightest element on the periodic table. Hydrogen is found in a variety of compounds, including water (H2O) and methane (CH4). Hydrogen is used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications, including fuel cells, welding, and chemical production.
Hydrogen Sulfide (HS): Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless, flammable gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. Hydrogen sulfide is produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter and is found in sewage, swamps, and coal mines. HS is also a byproduct of petroleum refining and paper manufacturing.
Hydrogeology: Hydrogeology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth. Hydrogeologists investigate groundwater resources, aquifers, springs, lakes, rivers, and wetlands. They also study the effects of human activity on water resources.
Hydrograph: A hydrograph is a graph that shows the rate or quantity of water flow over time. Hydrographs can be used to show the effects of rainfall or other events on river flow or groundwater levels.
Hydrologic Cycle: The hydrologic cycle is the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth.
Hydrolysis: Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which water reacts with another compound to produce two or more products.
Hydrophilic: Hydrophilic substances are those that are attracted to water. They tend to dissolve in water or be wetted by it.
Hydrophobic: Hydrophobic substances are those that are repelled by water. They tend to be non-polar and do not dissolve in or mix with water.
Hydrosphere: The hydrosphere is the portion of the Earth's surface where water is found in any form, including oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
Hypochlorite: Hypochlorite is a compound containing chlorine that has been treated with an oxidizing agent such as oxygen or ozone. It is used as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.
Hypoxic Waters: Hypoxic waters are waters that have a low concentration of oxygen. This can be due to natural causes such as upwelling or stratification, or due to human activities such as pollution
IFB:The IFB is a type of cone used to measure the settleability of sludge. It is named after German engineer and scientist Wilhelm Imhoff. The Imhoff cone is placed in the sludge tank and the effluent is allowed to flow through it. The rate of flow is then measured and the settleability of the sludge can be calculated.
Imhoff Cone:The Imhoff cone is a device used for measuring the settleable solids in a liquid sample. It is named after German engineer Karl Imhoff, who invented it in the early 20th century. The cone consists of a graduated cylinder with a conical bottom. A sample of the liquid to be tested is placed in the cylinder and allowed to settle for a period of time. The volume of settleable solids is then measured and expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the sample.
Immersion Heater:An immersion heater is a type of electrical heating element that is used to heat liquids, such as water or oil. It consists of a metal coil that is immersed in the liquid to be heated. The coil is connected to an electrical power source, which heats the coil and causes the liquid to be heated. Immersion heaters are used in a variety of applications, such as home water heaters, industrial process heating, and space heating.
Immiscibility:Immiscibility is the property of two substances that prevents them from mixing together to form a homogeneous mixture. This can occur when the two substances are not compatible with each other on a molecular level, or when one substance is insoluble in the other. When immiscible substances are mixed together, they will separate into distinct layers based on their density.
Impermeable:A material that does not allow fluids or other substances to pass through it. An impermeable layer of rock or soil is one that water cannot easily penetrate, making it an important factor in the formation of aquifers.
Impurities:Substances that are present in a material but are not the desired component. In water treatment, impurities are often minerals or other contaminants that can make water unsafe to drink. Indicator organisms are used to test for the presence of impurities in water supplies.
Indian Ocean Dipole:A climate cycle in which the Indian Ocean experiences alternating periods of warmer and cooler water temperatures. This cycle can affect weather patterns in nearby regions, including Australia.
Indicator:A substance that changes color in the presence of a particular substance, indicating the presence of that substance. In water quality testing, indicators are used to test for the presence of certain contaminants. Common indicators include pH indicators and chlorine indicators.
Indicator Organisms:Organisms that are used to test for the presence of impurities in water supplies. These organisms are sensitive to changes in water quality and can be used to monitor for contamination. Common indicator organisms include bacteria and algae.
Indicator Tests: A type of water quality test that uses a chemical indicator to determine the presence or absence of a particular substance in a sample.
Indirect Discharge: Water that enters a sewage system from sources other than toilets, sinks, and showers. Indirect discharge can come from stormwater runoff, groundwater infiltration, and surface runoff.
Infiltration: The process by which water on the ground surface seeps into the soil. Infiltration rates vary depending on the type of soil, the amount of rainfall, and the intensity of the rain.
Influent: Water that enters a sewage treatment plant from toilets, sinks, and showers. Influent is also called domestic wastewater or sewage.
Inhibitor: A substance that prevents or slows down a chemical reaction. Inhibitors are used in water treatment to prevent the growth of bacteria and algae.
Injection: The process of adding a substance to water using a pump or other mechanical means. Injection is used to add chemicals to water for treatment purposes.
Inlet valves:Inlet valves are used to regulate the flow of fluids and gases into a system. They are often used in conjunction with outlet valves to control the direction and rate of flow. Inlet valves can be operated manually or automatically, and are available in a variety of materials to suit different applications.
Inorganic chemicals:Inorganic chemicals are those that do not contain carbon atoms. They can be found in nature, but are also produced synthetically for use in industry and commerce. Inorganic chemicals have a wide range of uses, from being used as fertilizers and pesticides, to being used in the production of plastics and other materials.
Internal trade:Internal trade is the exchange of goods and services between businesses or individuals within the same country. It is distinct from international trade, which is the exchange of goods and services between businesses or individuals in different countries. Internal trade makes up a large part of the total trade volume for most countries, and can be further divided into domestic trade (between businesses or individuals within the same city or region) and inter-regional trade (between businesses or individuals in different regions of the same country).
Interstate trade:Interstate trade is the exchange of goods and services between businesses or individuals in different states or territories of Australia. It is distinct from international trade, which is the exchange of goods and services between businesses or individuals in different countries. Interstate trade makes up a significant proportion of total trade for Australia, and can be further divided into intrastate trade (between businesses or individuals within the same state) and interstate trade (between businesses or individuals in different states).
IOD:IOD stands for "inorganic compound". An IOD is any compound that does not contain carbon atoms. IODs can be found naturally, but they are also produced synthetically for use in industry and commerce. IODs have a wide range of uses, from being used as fertilizers and pesticides, to being used in the production of plastics and other materials.
Ion:An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons, resulting in a net charge. Ions can be either positive or negative, depending on whether they have lost or gained electrons. Atoms that have gained or lost protons are called cations and anions, respectively.
Ion exchange:Ion exchange is a process in which ions are exchanged between two substances. In the context of water treatment, ion exchange is used to remove unwanted ions from water, such as dissolved minerals, and to replace them with desired ions, such as sodium.
Irrigation:Irrigation is the process of applying water to land in order to help plants grow. It can be done using a variety of methods, including sprinklers, drip irrigation, and flood irrigation. Irrigation is often used in areas where there is not enough rainfall to support plant growth, or where the rainfall is not evenly distributed throughout the year.
Irrigation right:An irrigation right is a legal entitlement to use water for irrigation purposes. Irrigation rights are typically granted by governments to landowners or water users who meet certain criteria, such as having land suitable for irrigation and being able to demonstrate a need for irrigation water.
Irrigation tank:An irrigation tank is a type of storage tank that is used to store water for irrigation purposes. Irrigation tanks are typically located on farms and are used to store water that has been pumped from wells, rivers, lakes, or other sources.
Jointing seal:A jointing seal is a type of sealant that is used to fill the space between two pieces of material. Jointing seals are commonly used in construction and engineering applications to seal joints in concrete, brickwork, and metalwork.
Kick Plate:A kick plate is a metal or plastic plate that is installed on the bottom of a door. The purpose of a kick plate is to protect the door from being damaged by people kicking it. Kick plates are usually made of stainless steel, aluminum, or plastic.
Kinetic Rate Coefficient:The kinetic rate coefficient is a measure of the speed at which a chemical reaction occurs. It is usually expressed in terms of the rate of change of the concentration of one of the reactants with respect to time. The unit of measurement for the kinetic rate coefficient is typically inverse seconds (s-1).
La Niña:La Niña is a weather phenomenon that results in cooler than average sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. This can lead to increased rainfall and flooding in some areas, and drought in others.
Ladder:A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps, used for climbing up or down. Ladders are often made of metal, wood, or rope, and are used by firefighters, construction workers, and others who need to access high places.
Lagoon:A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body by a barrier reef or sandbar. Lagoons are found all over the world, and are often home to a diverse range of plant and animal life.
Lake:A lake is a large body of water that is surrounded by land. Lakes are found on every continent except Antarctica, and they come in all shapes and sizes. Some lakes are freshwater, while others are saltwater.
Laminar Flow: Laminar flow is a type of fluid flow in which the fluid flows in parallel layers with no mixing between the layers. The fluid is forced to flow in a straight line by the walls of the container or pipe through which it is flowing. The laminar flow regime is characterized by low turbulence and a high degree of predictability.
Land Application: Land application is the process of applying wastes to land for beneficial use. Wastes can be applied to land for agricultural purposes, such as fertilizer, or for other purposes, such as landfill leachate treatment.
Langelier Index (LI): The Langelier Index is a measure of water stability, which is used to determine whether water is corrosive or not. The index ranges from -1 to +1, with water that is more than 0.5 being considered corrosive.
Large Water System: A large water system is a water system that serves more than 50,000 people. Large water systems are typically owned and operated by municipalities or other government entities.
Leachate: Leachate is any liquid that has leached out of solid waste material. Leachate can contain harmful chemicals and pollutants that can contaminate groundwater and surface water if not properly managed.
Leaching: Leaching is the process by which liquids and solids are removed from a solid material by dissolution in a liquid phase. Leaching can be used to remove contaminants from soil or other materials, or to extract valuable minerals from ore bodies.
Leakage:In Australia, leakage is defined as the unauthorized release of water from a pipe, valve, or other structure. This can happen due to a number of reasons, including faulty equipment, poor maintenance, or damage to the structure. Leakage can lead to significant water loss and may cause property damage.
Level Switch:A level switch is a device that is used to measure the level of liquid in a tank or container. It is often used in industrial applications to monitor the level of liquids in storage tanks or process vessels. The switch can be used to control pumps or other equipment that need to be activated when the liquid level reaches a certain point.
Lid Support:A lid support is a device that is used to hold a lid in place. It is often used on cabinets and doors to keep the lid from falling closed. The support can be adjustable so that the lid can be opened to different degrees.
Light Absorption:Light absorption is the process by which light energy is converted into another form of energy. This can happen through various mechanisms, such as photosynthesis, solar heating, and chemical reactions. Absorption is an important part of many processes that occur in nature and in man-made devices.
Lime:Lime is a calcium-containing compound that is used in many industrial and agricultural applications. It is produced by calcining limestone or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at high temperatures. Lime has many uses, including as a building material, soil stabilizer, and chemical reagent. It can also be used for water treatment and flue gas desulfurization.
Limnology: Limnology is the study of inland waters, such as lakes, rivers, and wetlands. It includes the study of their physical properties, such as temperature and depth; their chemical properties, such as pH and dissolved oxygen; and their biological properties, such as algae and aquatic insects. Limnologists also study how these systems interact with their surroundings, including the effects of pollution and climate change.
Leakage:Liquid: A liquid is a fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a constant volume independent of pressure.
LPCB: The Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) is a Crown corporation that retails and distributes alcoholic beverages throughout the Canadian province of Ontario.
Major Storage: Major storage is the process of storing large quantities of liquids, such as oil, in tanks or reservoirs.
Mechanical Aeration: Mechanical aeration is the process of using mechanical means to introduce air into a liquid. This can be done by bubbling air through the liquid or by using a mechanical device to agitate the liquid.
Mechanical Flotation: Mechanical flotation is the process of using mechanical means to remove solids from a liquid. This can be done by using a mechanical device to skim the surface of the liquid or by using a centrifugal force to separate the solid and liquid phases.
Media: Media is any material that can be used to store or transmit information.
Medium-Size Water System:A medium-size water system is a water system that is larger than a small water system but smaller than a large water system. Medium-size water systems are usually used to supply water to communities of up to 50,000 people.
Melting:Melting is the process of changing a substance from a solid state to a liquid state. When a substance melts, it goes through a phase change from a solid to a liquid. The reverse of melting is freezing, which is when a liquid changes to a solid.
Membrane:A membrane is a thin layer of material that separates two areas or substances. Membranes are found in cells and other biological systems, as well as in man-made systems such as filters and membranes used in water treatment.
Mesotrophic:Mesotrophic waters are waters that have an intermediate level of nutrients. Mesotrophic waters are neither eutrophic (high in nutrients) nor oligotrophic (low in nutrients).
Metabolise:Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of raw materials into usable products for the cell, and the elimination of cellular waste products.
MFS:MFS stands for Microbial Fuel Cell. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy by using microorganisms as catalysts. MFCs can be used to generate electricity from renewable sources such as wastewater and biomass.
Microbial Growth: Microbial growth is the increase in number or mass of microorganisms over time. In order for microbial growth to occur, microbes must have access to food, water, and favorable environmental conditions such as temperature and pH.
Micron: A micron, also called a micrometer, is a unit of measurement that is equal to one millionth of a meter. This unit of measurement is used in many different fields, including science and engineering.
Microrganisms: Microrganisms are tiny organisms that can only be seen with a microscope. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Some microrganisms are beneficial to humans, while others can cause disease.
Millennium Drought: The Millennium Drought was a period of extended dry conditions that affected much of Australia from 1995 to 2009. This drought was one of the worst droughts on record, causing widespread water shortages and devastating agricultural losses.
Mineral Water: Mineral water is water that contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium. These minerals can be found naturally in spring water or added artificially to bottled water. Mineral water is often used for therapeutic purposes, as the minerals are thought to have health benefits.
Miscibility: Miscibility is the ability of two or more substances to mix together evenly. When two substances are miscible, they form a homogeneous mixture with no visible separation of phases. Water and alcohol are examples of miscible liquids, while oil and water are immiscible.
Mist: Mist is a type of precipitation that forms when tiny droplets of water suspend in the air. Mist can occur at any temperature, but it is most common in cold weather when the air is saturated with moisture.
Mixture: A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity.
Molecules: Molecules are the smallest units of matter that retain all the chemical properties of an element or compound.
Municipal Discharge: Municipal discharge is water that has been used by a municipality (city, town, or village) and then released into the environment. This water may contain pollutants that can be harmful to human health and the environment.
Municipal Sewage: Municipal sewage is wastewater that is generated by a municipality (city, town, or village). This wastewater may contain pollutants that can be harmful to human health and the environment.
Municipal Sludge: Municipal sludge is the solid waste that is generated by a municipality (city, town, or village) from its wastewater treatment process. This sludge may contain pollutants that can be harmful to human health and the environment.
Neutrons: Neutrons are particles that have no electric charge and are located in the nucleus of an atom.
Nitrification: The process of converting nitrogen-containing compounds into nitrates and nitrites.
Nitrogen: A chemical element with the symbol N, atomic number 7 and atomic mass 14.007. It is a colourless, odourless gas that is essential for life on Earth.
Nominal Capacity: The average or expected output of a system or process, typically expressed as a percentage of its maximum possible output.
Non-Point Sources: Pollution that comes from diffuse sources rather than point sources. Diffuse sources are harder to control because they are not easily identified or quantified.
Non-Potable: Water that is not safe to drink because it contains harmful contaminants.
Nucleus: The central part of an atom, consisting of protons and neutrons, around which the electrons orbit.
Nuisance Contaminant: A nuisance contaminant is a substance that is not harmful to human health but can cause annoyance or inconvenience. Nuisance contaminants can include dust, noise, odours and light.
Nutrient: A nutrient is a substance that is necessary for the growth and development of plants and animals. Nutrients can be found in the air, water and soil. They are essential for the proper functioning of the body’s cells, tissues and organs.
Nutrient Pollution: Nutrient pollution is the build-up of nutrients in the environment. This can happen when there is an overuse of fertilizers or when sewage and animal waste are not properly treated. Nutrient pollution can lead to problems such as algal blooms, which can deplete oxygen levels in water and harm aquatic life.
One-Piece Tank: A one-piece tank is a type of septic tank that is made from a single piece of material. One-piece tanks are usually made from concrete or fiberglass. They are less likely to leak than two-piece tanks, but they are more expensive.
Organic Matter: Organic matter is matter that contains carbon. It can come from plants, animals or other sources. Organic matter helps to improve the quality of soil by providing nutrients and improving drainage. It also helps to protect against erosion.
Outfall: An outfall is a pipe or other structure that carries wastewater from a treatment plant to a receiving body of water. Outfalls must be designed to prevent pollution of the receiving water body.
Overflow: Overflow is the release of wastewater from a treatment plant when it reaches capacity. Overflow can happen during heavy rains or when there is an unexpected increase in wastewater flow. Overflow can cause pollution if it is not properly controlled
Overflow Rate:The overflow rate is the rate at which water flows out of a tank or other container. It is usually expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the tank per unit time.
Oxidation:Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another. This can happen when two molecules come into contact with each other, or when one molecule is exposed to oxygen. The result of oxidation is that the molecules become more electrically charged, and this can cause them to change their structure and properties.
Oxidation Pond:An oxidation pond is a type of wastewater treatment facility that uses bacteria to break down organic matter. The ponds are usually shallow and contain a mix of water, air, and bacteria. The bacteria consume the organic matter and produce carbon dioxide and water as waste products.
Oxidation-Reduction Potential:The oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a measure of the ability of a substance to oxidize or reduce other substances. It is expressed in millivolts (mV) and is measured with an ORP meter. A substance with a high ORP will tend to oxidize other substances, while a substance with a low ORP will tend to reduce them.
Oxygen:Oxygen is a gas that makes up about 21% of the air we breathe. It is essential for life, and it is used by our cells to produce energy. Oxygen is also used in many industrial processes, such as welding and metal production.
Oxygen Depletion:Oxygen depletion occurs when the level of oxygen in the air decreases. This can happen due to natural causes, such as weather patterns, or human activities, such as burning fossil fuels. Oxygen depletion can be harmful to humans and other animals because it reduces the amount of oxygen available for breathing.
Ozone:Ozone is a gas that is present in the Earth's upper atmosphere. It is made up of three oxygen atoms (O3) and is much less dense than the air we breathe. Ozone protects us from the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Ozone generators:An ozone generator is a device that creates ozone gas. Ozone generators are used in a variety of applications, including water treatment, air purification, and food preservation.
Ozone generator:A device that creates ozone gas. Ozone generators are used in a variety of applications, including water treatment, air purification, and food preservation.
Partial pressure:The pressure that a gas exerts when it is mixed with other gases. The partial pressure of a gas is proportional to its concentration in the mixture.
Particle size:The diameter of a particle. Particle size can be measured in micrometers (µm).
Particulate loading:The amount of particulate matter suspended in air or water. Particulate loading can be expressed as mass per unit volume (mg/m3) or as number of particles per unit volume (ppm).
Parts Per Billion:This term refers to the number of parts of a substance that are present in every billion parts of a given sample. It is typically used as a measure of concentration, especially when referring to pollutants or other contaminants in air, water, or soil.
Parts Per Million:This term refers to the number of parts of a substance that are present in every million parts of a given sample. It is typically used as a measure of concentration, especially when referring to pollutants or other contaminants in air, water, or soil.
Pasteurisation:Pasteurisation is a process of heating a food or beverage to kill harmful bacteria. It was invented by Louis Pasteur in the 19th century and is named after him. Pasteurisation does not make food sterile, but it reduces the number of viable bacteria enough to make it safe to consume.
Percent Saturation:The percent saturation is the ratio of the actual amount of a substance dissolved in a solvent to the maximum amount that could be dissolved at that temperature and pressure. It is usually expressed as a percentage.
Percolating Water:Percolating water is water that has seeped down through pores or cracks in an underlying material. This can happen naturally, such as when rainwater percolates through soil, or artificially, such as when water is injected into an oil well to force out petroleum.
Periodic Chart:The periodic chart is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. The chart also shows trends in these properties, such as increasing atomic size or electronegativity
Permeability:The permeability of a material is a measure of its ability to allow fluids or gases to pass through it. The higher the permeability, the greater the ability of the material to allow fluids or gases to pass through it. The term is most commonly used in relation to soils and rocks, but can also be applied to other materials such as concrete, brick, and wood.
Persistence:Persistence is the ability of a substance to remain in its original form and not be broken down or transformed by environmental factors such as heat, light, or water. This is an important property for many substances, especially those that are used in products that come into contact with the environment, such as paints and coatings.
pH:The pH of a solution is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity. The lower the pH, the more acidic the solution; the higher the pH, the more alkaline the solution. A neutral solution has a pH of 7.0.
Phase:A phase is a state of matter that has uniform physical and chemical properties. The three most common phases are solid, liquid, and gas. A fourth phase, plasma, can exist under certain conditions (such as high temperature or pressure). Materials can change from one phase to another under certain conditions (such as changes in temperature or pressure).
Phosphorus:Phosphorus is an element that is essential for plant growth. It is found in phosphate minerals and in organic compounds such as DNA and RNA. Phosphorus is an important component of fertilizers and is also used in making explosives and fireworks.
Photosynthesis:Photosynthesis is the process that produces organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules from sunlight energy .It occurs in plants ,algae ,and some bacteria ,whereas photoautotrophs use light energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic matter ,such as glucose .Oxygen gas is also produced during photosynthesis .
Physical and Chemical Treatment:Physical and chemical treatment is the process of using physical or chemical means to remove contaminants from water. This can be done to make water safe for human consumption, to make it suitable for agricultural or industrial use, or to clean up water that has been contaminated by pollutants.
Physical Weathering:Physical weathering is the process by which rocks and minerals are broken down into smaller pieces by the action of physical forces. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including freeze-thaw cycles, abrasion, and chemical weathering. Physical weathering is an important process in the formation of soils and other sediments, and can also help to create unique landforms such as cliffs and caves.
Phytoplankton:Phytoplankton are microscopic plants that live in watery environments, both fresh and salt water. They are an important part of the aquatic food chain, providing food for fish, crustaceans, and other animals. Phytoplankton also play a role in global climate change, as they are a major source of atmospheric oxygen.
Pilot Tests:Pilot tests are small-scale versions of larger projects or experiments. They are used to test the feasibility of a proposed plan or to gather data about a new system or technology. Pilot tests can be conducted on a variety of different things, from new products to marketing campaigns.
Planned Environmental Water:Planned environmental water is water that is released from storage for the purpose of environmental flows. These flows help to maintain river health by providing water during times of drought, flushing out pollutants, and recharging groundwater supplies. In Australia, planned environmental water releases are managed by the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder.
POE-Treatment:POE-treatment is a type of wastewater treatment that uses oil-water emulsions to remove contaminants from water. POE-treatment is often used in industries where oil and water are present, such as petrochemical plants or oil refineries.
Point Source:A point source of pollution is a single, identifiable source of pollution from which contaminants are discharged. A point source can be natural or man-made. Common examples of point sources include factories, power plants, and sewage treatment facilities.
Polar Substance:A polar substance is a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment. This means that the molecule has an asymmetric distribution of electric charge, with the positive and negative charges located at opposite ends of the molecule. Polar substances are attracted to other polar molecules and to charged particles (ions).
Pollutant:A pollutant is a substance that contaminates the environment. Pollutants can be either natural or man-made. They can be released into the environment through human activities or natural processes. Common pollutants include chemicals, sewage, and greenhouse gases.
POP's:POP's stands for "persistent organic pollutants". These are chemicals that are resistant to degradation and remain in the environment for long periods of time. POP's can accumulate in the bodies of animals and humans, causing health problems. Common examples of POP's include DDT and PCBs.
Pore:A pore is a small opening in a surface. Pores allow liquids and gases to pass through them. They are found in many different materials, including rocks, soil, and skin. Pores vary in size from microscopic to macroscopic.
Potable Water:Water that is safe to drink
Potentiation:The process of increasing the potency or strength of a drug or other substance.
Potentiometric surface:A surface on which the potential difference between two points is measured.
POU-treatment:A type of water treatment in which a point-of-use (POU) device is used to remove impurities from water.
Pre-treatment:The process of treating water or wastewater before it is discharged into a sewage system or natural body of water.
Precipitate:A solid substance that forms in a solution when the concentrations of the dissolved substances exceed their solubility limit. Precipitates can also be formed by chemical reactions between two or more solutions.
Precipitation:Precipitation is the release of water from clouds in the form of rain, sleet, snow, or hail. It is the main component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on Earth.
Pressure Sewers:A pressure sewer is a type of sewer that uses pressurized water to transport sewage through a network of small diameter pipes. Pressure sewers are typically used in areas where gravity sewers are not feasible or practical, such as steeply sloping terrain or areas with very high groundwater tables.
Primary Wastewater Treatment:Primary wastewater treatment is the process of removing suspended solids and biodegradable organic matter from sewage. This process typically occurs in a primary settling tank or clarifier.
Product Water:Product water is water that has been treated to meet specific quality standards for use in a particular application. Product water may be used for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, or other purposes.
Protons:A proton is a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge. Protons are found in the nucleus of atoms, and they are responsible for the chemical properties of atoms.
Protozoa:Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that are typically found in aquatic environments. Many protozoa are free-living, but some are parasitic. Protozoa play an important role in the food web and contribute to the decomposition of organic matter.
Public water system: A public water system is a water supply system that provides water to the public.
Purified recycled water for drinking: Purified recycled water is water that has been treated to remove impurities and contaminants.
Putrefaction: Putrefaction is the decomposition of organic matter by bacteria or other microorganisms.
Pyrogen: A pyrogen is a substance that causes fever.
Quantitative water assessment: A quantitative water assessment is an evaluation of the quantity and quality of water resources.
Quicksilver Water: Quicksilver Water is a type of water that contains high levels of mercury.
Rainfall: Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then falls to the Earth's surface.
Rainfall-Independent Water Supply: A water supply that is not dependent on rainfall, such as a groundwater or surface water supply.
Rainwater Harvesting Tank: A tank used to collect and store rainwater for later use.
Rainwater Tanks: Tanks used to collect and store rainwater for later use.
Raised Level Inlet Chamber/ball Valve Housing/ball Valve Box/: A chamber or box used to house a ball valve in a raised position, typically used in stormwater or sewage applications.
Raw Sewage: Sewage that has not been treated or processed in any way.
Raw Water: Water that has not been treated or processed in any way.
Reaeration: The process of adding oxygen to water in order to improve its quality.
Recarbonization: The process of adding carbon dioxide to water in order to improve its quality.
Receiving Waters: The waters that receive treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant.
Recharge Area: An area where water is replenished, either naturally or through human activity.
Recirculation: The process of circulating water in a closed system, such as a wastewater treatment plant.
Recycled Water: Water that has been treated and reused.
Recycled water: Recycled water is water that has been used for a purpose and then treated so that it can be used again. It is also sometimes called reclaimed water or wastewater reuse.
Red Book Live: Red Book Live is an online database of chemical products that are available in the United Kingdom. It is maintained by the Chemical Business Association (CBA).
Redox: Redox reactions are chemical reactions in which one or more electrons are transferred from one molecule to another. These reactions can be used to produce electricity, to clean up pollution, or to make new chemicals.
Reduction: Reduction is a type of chemical reaction in which one substance gains electrons and becomes more negative. This can happen when two substances react with each other, or when one substance reacts with an electron donor.
Regeneration: Regeneration is the process of regrowing lost or damaged tissue. This can happen naturally, such as when a lizard grows a new tail, or it can be induced by medical procedures, such as when skin grafts are used to treat burns.
Regulated River: A regulated river is a river that has been dammed or otherwise altered by humans in order to control its flow. This can be done for purposes such as irrigation, flood control, or hydroelectric power generation.
Reserve Capacity:The amount of water that can be stored in a reservoir or other water body, usually expressed as a percentage of the total capacity.
Reservoir:A natural or man-made lake or other body of water that is used to store water for irrigation, drinking water, industrial use, or other purposes.
Residential Water:Water that is used for domestic purposes in homes and other residences. This includes water used for cooking, cleaning, bathing, and watering lawns and gardens.
Residue:The solid or semisolid material that remains after a liquid has been evaporated or filtered. Residue can also refer to the amount of a substance that remains in a container after it has been used.
Resilient Water Supply:A water supply system that is designed to withstand and quickly recover from disruptions such as power outages, floods, and earthquakes. A resilient water supply system typically includes backup generators, pumps, and storage tanks.
Resolution:The smallest unit of measurement that can be detected by a measuring device. Resolution is often expressed as the number of units per inch (or centimeter). For example, a resolution of 1 inch means that the smallest unit that can be measured is 1/12th of an inch.
Reverse Osmosis Process: A process in which water is forced through a semipermeable membrane to remove dissolved solids and impurities.
Reversed Osmosis: A process where water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane to remove dissolved minerals and impurities.
River Region: An area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.
RSJ Steel: A type of steel beam used in construction, typically for supporting ceilings or roofs.
Run-Off: Water that flows from the land into rivers, lakes or oceans.
Runoff Dam: A dam built to capture runoff water and prevent flooding.
Safe Yield: The amount of water that can be safely taken from a river or aquifer without causing environmental damage.
Salinity: The saltiness of water, usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt).
Sand Filtration:Sand filtration is a type of water treatment process that uses sand to remove contaminants from water. The process works by passing water through a bed of sand, which traps the contaminants in the sand. Sand filtration is often used in conjunction with other water treatment processes, such as activated carbon filtration, to remove a wide range of contaminants from water.
Saturated Zone:The saturated zone is the layer of soil or rock below the ground surface where all pores are filled with water. The upper limit of the saturated zone is called the water table. The saturated zone is sometimes also referred to as the phreatic zone.
Saturation:Saturation is the state of being completely soaked or soaked up with water. When a material is saturated, it can no longer absorb any more water. Saturation can also refer to the state of being completely filled with something, such as when a sponge is saturated with water.
Scale:Scale refers to a thin layer of material that forms on the surface of objects when they come into contact with liquids or gases. Scale can be made up of minerals, metals, or other materials. Scale can build up on the inside of pipes and other surfaces over time, and can cause problems if it isn't removed regularly.
Screened Vent:A screened vent is a type of vent that has a screen over it to prevent insects and other small animals from entering. Screened vents are often used in homes and other buildings to keep out pests. Vents without screens can allow pests to enter homes and cause problems.
Screening: Screening is the process of separating particles from a mixture using a mesh or screen. Screening is often used in mining and construction to separate different types of materials, such as rocks, gravel, and sand. Screening can also be used to remove impurities from liquids and gases.
Seawater Desalination: Seawater desalination is the process of removing salt and other minerals from seawater to make it potable (drinkable). Seawater desalination is typically done using reverse osmosis, which forces seawater through a semipermeable membrane that only allows fresh water molecules to pass through while trapping salt and other impurities on one side.
Secondary treatment: Secondary treatment is the process of removing dissolved and suspended organic matter from sewage or industrial effluent, using a combination of biological and physical processes. It is typically carried out in a sewage treatment plant, after primary treatment has removed gross solids.
Sectional tank: A sectional tank is a watertight chamber used for storing water, wastewater or other liquids. It is usually cylindrical in shape, with a flat bottom and a domed top. Sectional tanks can be made from concrete, fiberglass or plastic, and are often used in domestic and commercial applications such as rainwater harvesting, firefighting and irrigation.
Security licence: A security licence is a licence issued by the police which allows an individual to work in the security industry. The licence may be issued for different types of work, such as guarding, crowd control or cash-in-transit.
Sedimentation:Sedimentation is the process of allowing particulate matter to settle out of a fluid. This can happen naturally, as in the case of sedimentation basins used for water treatment, or it can be induced by mechanical means such as centrifugation.
Sediments: Sediments are particles of solid matter that have been deposited by wind, water or ice. They include things like sand, gravel, silt and clay. Sediments can be found on the Earth’s surface, in rivers and lakes, and even in the oceans.
Self-draining base:A self-draining base is a type of foundation that allows water to drain away from the building structure. This is achieved through the use of perforated pipes or other drainage systems that allow water to seep away from the foundation without causing damage to the building.
Semi-confined aquifer: A semi-confined aquifer is an aquifer that has some degree of confinement by an overlying layer of impermeable material. This type of aquifer is often found beneath rivers or lakes, where the water table is confined by the bed of the body of water above it.
Semipermeable: A semipermeable membrane is a selective barrier that allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion.
Separate Sewer: A separate sewer is a type of sewer system in which stormwater and wastewater are carried in separate pipes.
Separation: Separation is the process of separating two or more substances from each other.
Septic Tank: A septic tank is a type of anaerobic digestion system that is used to treat wastewater from homes and businesses.
Serious Rainfall Deficiency: Serious rainfall deficiency is defined as rainfall that is below average for at least three months consecutively.
Settleable Solids: Settleable solids are particles that settle out of water when it is allowed to stand for a period of time.
Settling: The process of separating out solid particles from a liquid by letting them settle at the bottom of a container.
Severe Rainfall Deficiency: A period of below-average rainfall, typically over a three-month period.
Sewage: Waste water that contains human waste, including urine and feces.
Sewage Contamination: The presence of sewage in water or soil that is not supposed to contain it.
Sewage Sludge: The solid material that settles out of sewage during treatment.
Sewerage: A system of pipes and pumps that carry sewage away from homes and businesses to be treated and discharged into the environment.
Shims: A shim is a thin piece of material, often metal or plastic, that is used to fill in a small gap or space between two objects.
Side Access Ball Valve Box: A side access ball valve box is a type of valve box that allows for the ball valve to be accessed from the side of the box, rather than from the top.
Side Access Hatch: A side access hatch is a type of hatch that allows for access to the interior of a structure from the side, rather than from the top.
Sight Glass: A sight glass is a glass panel that is used to allow people to see into an enclosed space.
Sludge: Sludge is a type of waste material that is made up of solid particles that have been suspended in water.
Sodium: Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that reacts violently with water.
Soft water:Water that has a low concentration of minerals, typically less than 50 parts per million. Soft water is often used in households because it doesn't leave behind deposits on fixtures and appliances.
Softening:The process of reducing the hardness of water by removing calcium and magnesium ions. Water softening can be done chemically or mechanically, and it is often used in households to improve the quality of water.
Soil moisture:The amount of water present in the soil. Soil moisture is important for plant growth, and it can be measured using a variety of methods, including gravimetric, volumetric, and tensiometric measurements.
Solidification:The process of converting a liquid into a solid. Solidification can be done naturally or artificially, and it is often used to preserve food or to make products like plastics and concrete.
Solubility:The ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance. Solubility is affected by the type of solvent and solute, as well as temperature and pressure. Some substances are more soluble in hot water than cold water, and others are more soluble in organic solvents than in water.
Solute:A substance that is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution. The solute is usually present in smaller amounts than the solvent, and it is typically the component of a solution that is being studied or measured.
Solvent: A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct substance) to form a solution. Solvents can be either polar or non-polar. Polar solvents have molecules with dipoles, meaning that their ends have opposite charges. Non-polar solvents do not have molecules with dipoles.
Sparge Pipe: A sparge pipe is a pipe used to introduce air or other gas into a liquid, usually for the purpose of aeration or agitation.
Sparger: A sparger is a device used to introduce gas into a liquid, usually for the purpose of aeration or agitation.
Sparging: Sparging is the process of introducing gas into a liquid, usually for the purpose of aeration or agitation.
Specific Conductance: Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of a solution to conduct an electric current. It is typically measured in units of Siemens per meter (S/m).
Spreader Plates: Spreader plates are devices used to distribute liquids evenly over a surface. They are often used in laboratory settings to ensure that samples are evenly mixed.
Spring: A natural source of water that flows from the ground or from a rock or other underground formation.
Sprinkler Tank: A tank used to store water for sprinkling or irrigation purposes.
Stock and Domestic Water Use: The use of water for domestic purposes, such as drinking, cooking, and washing, and for livestock watering.
Stoke's Law: The law stating that the rate of flow of a fluid is proportional to the difference in pressure between two points in the fluid.
Storage Level: The level at which water is stored in a reservoir or other body of water.
Storage System: A storage system is a group of devices or components that are used to store data or energy. Storage systems can be either physical or virtual, and can be located on-premises or off-premises.
Storage Volume: A storage volume is a logical unit of storage that is used to store data. Storage volumes can be either physical or virtual, and can be located on-premises or off-premises.
Stormwater: Stormwater is water that originates from precipitation events, such as rain, snow, sleet, and hail. Stormwater can also include water that originates from melting ice and snow.
Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse: Stormwater harvesting and reuse is the process of collecting stormwater runoff and using it for beneficial purposes, such as irrigation, flushing toilets, or replenishing groundwater aquifers.
Streamflow: Streamflow is the movement of water in a stream or river. Streamflow can be measured in terms of volume (discharge) or speed (velocity).
Sublimation: Sublimation is the process by which a substance transitions from a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid phase. Sublimation can occur when a substance is heated to its vaporization point.
Sump Panels: Sump panels are panels that are used to collect and store stormwater runoff. Sump panels are typically installed in basements or other below-grade areas.
Surface Tension: The force that exists between molecules of a liquid, causing the liquid to resist an external force.
Surface Water: Water that is found on the surface of the earth, such as in lakes, rivers, and oceans.
Suspended Solids: Solid particles that are suspended in water or other liquids.
Sustainable Diversion Limit: The maximum amount of water that can be diverted from a water body without causing significant environmental harm.
Synergism: The interaction of two or more substances to produce an effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
TDS: Total Dissolved Solids, the measure of all inorganic and organic substances dissolved in water.
TDS and Conductivity:TDS and conductivity are important water quality parameters that are often used to assess the suitability of water for different uses. TDS is a measure of the total dissolved solids in water, while conductivity is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electrical current. Both parameters are affected by the presence of dissolved minerals in water.High TDS and conductivity levels can indicate the presence of pollutants such as heavy metals or organic matter. TDS and conductivity can also be used to monitor the efficiency of water treatment processes.
Theodolite:A theodolite is a precision optical instrument used for surveying and measuring angles between objects. It consists of a telescope mounted on a tripod, with graduated circles that allow the instrument to be rotated and tilted to take precise measurements. Theodolites are used in a variety of applications, including surveying land for construction projects, mapping terrain, and measuring the height of buildings and other structures.
Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes the temperature of the water.
THM is a type of organic compound that is produced when chlorine is used to disinfect water. It is a by-product of the chlorination process and can be found in both surface and ground water.
Tie bar is a type of reinforcement used in concrete construction. It is a steel bar or rod that is used to connect two or more pieces of concrete together.
Titration is a method of chemical analysis that involves adding a known amount of one substance (the titrant) to another substance (the analyte) until the reaction between them is complete.
Total Dissolved Solids:Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a water sample that are capable of being dissolved. In other words, it is a measure of the water's dissolved ion content. The standard unit of measurement for TDS is parts per million (ppm).
Total solids (TS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a water sample. This includes anything that is suspended in the water as well as anything that is dissolved. Total solids can be measured by evaporating a known volume of water and measuring the weight of the residue. The standard unit of measurement for TS is also parts per million (ppm).
Total storage capacity is the total amount of water that can be stored in an aquifer, reservoir, or other body of water. It is usually expressed as a volume, such as cubic kilometers (km3) or cubic miles (mi3).
A totally internally flanged (TIF) pipe is one where the flanges are welded to the inside surface of the pipe rather than being bolted or screwed on from the outside. This type of pipe is often used in high-pressure applications where there is no need for access to the inside of the pipe.
Toxic water pollutants are any chemical substances that are harmful to human health or the environment when they are present in water at concentrations above certain levels. These levels are set by environmental regulations in order to protect public health and aquatic life. Some common toxic pollutants include heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial chemicals.
Transmission lines are used to carry electric power from one point to another over long distances. They are typically made up of three conductors: two "live" wires carrying alternating current (AC), and one "neutral" wire carrying direct current (DC). The live wires are separated from each other by an insulating material, such as air, glass, or plastic.
Transmissivity:The transmissivity of a material is a measure of its ability to transmit electromagnetic energy. The higher the transmissivity, the better the material is at transmitting energy. Transmissivity is often used in the context of optical materials, such as glass or optical fibers, but can also be applied to other types of materials, such as electrical cables or radio waves.
Transpiration:Transpiration is the process of water vapor being released from plants. This can happen through the stomata, which are tiny pores in the leaves, or through the surface of the plant itself. Transpiration helps to regulate the plant's temperature and also provides water for the plant to absorb through its roots.
A treatment plant is a facility where wastewater is treated before it is discharged into the environment. Wastewater is brought to the treatment plant by sewers and goes through a series of processes to remove pollutants before it is discharged into rivers, lakes or the ocean.
Trickling filters are one type of treatment process used in treatment plants. Wastewater is trickled over a bed of rocks or other media and the bacteria on the media break down the pollutants in the wastewater.
TS stands for total suspended solids. Total suspended solids are the solid particles in wastewater that can be trapped by a filter. The total suspended solids concentration is a measure of the amount of pollution in wastewater.
Tube settlers are another type of treatment process used in treatment plants. Tube settlers are used to remove settleable solids from wastewater. Solids that do not settle out of wastewater are called floatables.
Turbidity is a measure of the cloudiness of water caused by suspended particles. Turbidity can make it difficult to see through water and can interfere with the ability of aquatic plants to get sunlight.
Turbulent Flow:Turbulent flow is a type of fluid flow in which the fluid undergoes chaotic changes in velocity and pressure. The chaotic changes in the fluid's velocity and pressure cause the fluid to become turbulent. Turbulent flow is characterized by high levels of kinetic energy, which makes it more difficult for the fluid to maintain a uniform flow. Turbulent flow can occur in both liquids and gases, and it is often caused by the presence of obstacles in the path of the fluid.
Fluid Category 3: A fluid category 3 is a fluid that has the potential to cause serious harm to human health or the environment if it is released.
Unconfined Aquifer: An unconfined aquifer is an aquifer that is not confined by an overlying layer of impermeable rock or clay.
Unloading: Unloading is the process of removing stress from a material by applying an external force.
Unplanned Reuse: Unplanned reuse is the use of water that has not been treated to meet drinking water standards for its intended purpose.
Unregulated River: An unregulated river is a river that flows freely without being controlled or regulated by damming, diversion, or other means.
Unsaturated Zone: The unsaturated zone is the zone between the ground surface and the water table where the soil or rock is not saturated with water.
Up Elbow: A type of elbow joint that is raised above the level of the shoulder.
Up-Flow: A type of flow that is directed upwards.
UP-Water: Water that has been collected from urban areas.
Urban Run-Off: Water that flows from urban areas, often carrying pollutants.
Urban Water: Water that is used in urban areas, often from public water supplies.
UV: Ultraviolet radiation, which can be harmful to human health.
Vaporize: to change (a substance) from a liquid or solid state into a vapor
Venturi: a device used to increase the speed of a fluid or gas flowing through it
Viruses: small infectious particles that can cause diseases
Viscosity: the property of a fluid that resists flow
VOC: volatile organic compounds, pollutants that can cause health problems
Vortex Inhibitor: a device used to prevent the formation of vortices
Pipe: A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.
Wastewater Infrastructure: Wastewater infrastructure refers to the network of pipes, pumps, treatment facilities and other infrastructure that is used to collect, transport and treat wastewater.
Wastewater Treatment: Wastewater treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove pollutants.
Water Abstraction: Water abstraction is the process of taking water from a natural source such as a river, lake or aquifer. This water can be used for domestic, agricultural or industrial purposes.
Water Access Entitlement: A water access entitlement gives the holder the right to take water from a specified water source for a specified purpose. Water access entitlements are allocated by state governments in Australia and are subject to water availability and environmental constraints.
Water Access Entitlement Trade: A water access entitlement trade is the transfer of a water access entitlement from one person or organisation to another. Water access entitlement trading is regulated by state governments in Australia and is subject to water availability and environmental constraints.
Water Access Entitlement Type:A water access entitlement type is a category of water access entitlement that specifies the purpose for which water may be taken from a water resource. In Australia, water access entitlement types are defined in the Water Act 2007 and include entitlements for domestic and stock purposes, irrigation, urban use, mining and industrial use, environmental purposes, and Aboriginal cultural purposes.
Water Allocation:A water allocation is the portion of a water resource that is allocated to a particular water user or group of users. In Australia, water allocations are made by state and territory governments in accordance with the Water Act 2007 and are managed through water allocation plans. Allocations can be made for a range of purposes including domestic and stock use, irrigation, urban use, mining and industrial use, environmental purposes, and Aboriginal cultural purposes.
Water Allocation Trade:A water allocation trade is the transfer of a water allocation from one water user to another. In Australia, water allocation trades are regulated by state and territory governments in accordance with the Water Act 2007. Allocation trades can only be made between entitlements of the same type and within the same water management area.
Water Efficiency:Water efficiency is the measure of how efficiently water is used in relation to its availability. In Australia, water efficiency is regulated by state and territory governments under the Water Act 2007. Water efficiency measures include restrictions on watering times and volumes, as well as rebates for efficient appliances and fixtures.
Water Management Area:A water management area is a geographic area over which a state or territory government has jurisdiction for managing water resources. In Australia, there are more than 150 differentwater management areas, each with its own set of rules and regulations for how water can be used. Water management areas are generally delineated based on catchment boundaries, but may also include groundwater resources or surface waters that are not part of a catchment.
Water Monitoring:Monitoring refers to observing changes in conditions or trends over time in order to make decisions about managing natural resources. In Australia, monitoring programs for surface waters and groundwater resources are conducted by state and territory governments under the Water Act 2007. These programs collect data on things like rainfall levels, stream flows, groundwater levels, evaporation rates, soil moisture levels, and land cover changes. This information is used to assess the health of aquatic ecosystems and make decisions about how to best manage these resources into the future.
Water Mythology:Water mythology is a type of mythology that revolves around water. This can include stories about floods, storms, and other natural disasters. It can also include stories about creatures who live in the water, such as mermaids and sea monsters. Water mythology is found in cultures all over the world, and often has religious or spiritual significance.
Water Quality:Water quality refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality are those published by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Water Reform:Water reform is the process of improving the management of water resources. This can involve changes to legislation, institutions, or infrastructure. Water reform is often undertaken in response to problems such as water scarcity, pollution, or floods. It can also be part of a wider process of economic reform.
Water Resource:A water resource is any source of water that can be used by humans. This includes surface water, groundwater, and rainwater. Water resources are important for drinking, irrigation, industry, and power generation. They are also important for ecosystems and wildlife.
Water Resource Plan:A water resource plan is a document that sets out how a water resource will be managed. It includes information on the quantity and quality of the resource, as well as how it will be used. Water resource plans are developed at different levels, from local to national. They are important for ensuring that water resources are used sustainably.
Water Restrictions:Water restrictions are measures put in place to limit the use of water during periods of drought or high demand. They can involve limiting the hours that people can water their gardens, or banning the use of hosepipes altogether. Water restrictions are often put in place during summer months when there is less rainfall and more demand for water from households and businesses
Water right:A water right is a legal entitlement to use water from a particular source, such as a river, lake, or aquifer. Water rights are often governed by water sharing plans or agreements, which allocate water among different users in order to avoid conflicts. Water rights can be acquired through ownership of land, by virtue of prior use, or by obtaining a water allocation from the government.
Water sharing between regions:Water sharing between regions is the process of allocating water resources among different geographical areas. This is often done in order to avoid conflicts and ensure that everyone has access to the water they need. Water sharing plans or agreements typically outline how much water each region is entitled to, and how this can be used.
Water sharing plan:A water sharing plan is a document that outlines how water resources will be allocated among different users. It typically includes information on who is entitled to use what amount of water, and for what purpose. Water sharing plans are designed to avoid conflicts and ensure that everyone has access to the necessary amount of water.
Water solubility:Water solubility is the property of a substance that allows it to dissolve in water. This means that the substance can be evenly distributed throughout the liquid and will not settle at the bottom. Water-soluble substances are usually able to be transported through the body by the bloodstream and excreted in urine. Many drugs and medications are designed to be water-soluble so that they can be easily absorbed into the body.
Water storage pond:A water storage pond is a man-made reservoir used for storing water. These ponds are typically used to store runoff from rainfall or snowmelt, which can then be used for irrigation, drinking water, or other purposes. Water storage ponds can also provide habitat for wildlife and act as recreation areas for people.
Water stress:Water stress is a term used to describe the situation when water resources are under pressure from human demand and other uses. This can happen when there is not enough water available to meet all the demands, or when water quality is poor and it cannot be used for all the intended purposes.
Water supply system:A water supply system is a network of components that work together to provide water to homes and businesses. The system includes a source of water, such as a river or aquifer, as well as storage facilities, pumps, treatment plants, and distribution networks.
Water system:A water system is a collection of interconnected waterways, including rivers, lakes, and aquifers. Water systems provide people with drinking water, irrigation water for crops, and water for industrial use. They also support ecosystems by providing habitat for plants and animals.
Water table:The water table is the upper level of an underground layer of water that saturates the soil. The depth of the water table can vary depending on the amount of rainfall and other factors. When the water table is close to the surface, wells can be used to access groundwater.
Water trade:The water trade is the buying and selling of water rights. Water rights are legal entitlements to use a certain amount of water from a particular source, such as a river or aquifer. These rights can be bought and sold like any other commodity, and the trade in water rights has become an important part of the economy in many countries.
Water Treatment History:The history of water treatment dates back to ancient times when people first began using water from rivers and lakes for drinking and other purposes. Early methods of water treatment were simple and usually involved boiling the water or using a cloth to filter out impurities. As civilizations grew and more people began using water from shared sources, it became clear that more effective methods of water treatment were needed to prevent the spread of disease.One of the earliest recorded examples of water treatment was in the Code of Hammurabi, a set of laws compiled in ancient Babylon around 1750 BC. The code included a regulation stating that all houses in the city must have a connection to the public sewer system. This was likely one of the first attempts to control pollution and protect public health by preventing contaminated water from being used.
Water Use Right:A water use right is a legal entitlement to use water from a specified source for a specified purpose. In Australia, water use rights are governed by state and territory legislation.
Watershed:A watershed is an area of land that drains into a body of water, such as a river, lake, or ocean. Watersheds are often divided into smaller units, called subwatersheds.
Watertable:The watertable is the upper level of an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, sediment, or soil from which groundwater can be extracted using a well. The depth of the watertable can vary depending on the amount of rainfall and the type of rocks or soils that make up the aquifer.
Weir:A weir is a dam-like structure that is used to control the flow of water in a river or stream. Weirs are often used to create reservoirs for irrigation or hydroelectric power generation.
Well: A well is a hole that has been dug, drilled, or bored in the ground to obtain water, oil, gas, or other fluids.
Wet Riser Tank: A wet riser tank is a type of water storage tank that is used to store water for firefighting purposes. The tank is usually located on the top floor of a building and is connected to the building's fire sprinkler system.
Wetland: A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands are home to a variety of plant and animal species that have adapted to living in wet conditions.
Wettability: Wettability is the ability of a liquid to wet a solid surface. This property is determined by the intermolecular forces between the liquid and the solid.
Wholesome Water:Wholesome water is water that is safe to drink and use for cooking and other purposes. It is also water that does not contain any harmful chemicals or pollutants.The term “wholesome” can be used to describe both the physical and chemical quality of water. Physical qualities of water include things like clarity, taste, and odor. Chemical qualities of water refer to the presence or absence of certain dissolved substances, such as minerals, salts, and gases.
Water Resources Allocation System:The Water Resources Allocation System (WRAS) is a set of policies and procedures for the allocation and use of water resources in Australia. It is designed to ensure that water resources are used efficiently and sustainably, and that the environment is protected.
Zone of Saturation: The zone of saturation is the area below the water table where all pores and fractures in the rock are completely filled with water. The water in this zone is under pressure and is called groundwater.
Zooplankton: Zooplankton are tiny aquatic animals that drift in the water column. They are an important part of the food chain and provide food for fish, amphibians, and other animals.
Zwitter Ions: Zwitterions are molecules that have both a positive and a negative charge. They are found in many biological systems, including the human body.